Changes in personality - those having Alzheimer may show changes in their personality in the sense that, the person shifts from being a self reliant and dependent person to an independent person. Although it occurs to normal person it is usually temporary compared to those having Alzheimer who show a general change in behavior. Laziness - this is a common sign where the person experiences increased passivity. The person may sleep almost the whole day or may watch television for the most part of the day.
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Although it is normal for a human being to feel tired and lazy, theirs is actually prolonged and extensive. These are the signs that someone can use to determine whether someone is actually suffering from Alzheimer's disease. There is actually a very big difference between signs of Alzheimer and challenges associated with ageing. Some of the characteristics of ageing persons may include:.
A doctor can actually look upon this signs or he can also decide to check on your family's background so as to make conclusion of the patient's diagnosis. If previously one of your family members had this disease then chances of someone getting infected are very high. A doctor should take appropriate measures to differentiate this disease from other forms of dementia.
The main cause of the Alzheimer is not well known. Various researchers are trying to come up with the causes of this disease so that more advanced and targeted treatments can be achieved and also find ways of preventing this disease. Most scientists have agreed that it is unlikely to have only one single cause of Alzheimer disease. They also state that this disease may have come up due to combination of various interrelated factors including the genetic factors and environmental factors.
These genetic factors may include the passage of the disease along family lines of inheritance. If one family member has the disease then there is a high likelihood for other family members to get infected. The environmental influences may include previous head trauma early in life and the educational level that one may have attained. Some scientists are also trying to determine if some of the lifestyle factors may cause one to get infected with the disease.
Such lifestyle factors may include high blood pressure, high cholesterol in the body and also the type of diet one is having. Age, family history and genetic factors are all considered as risk factors. But these risk factors cannot be controlled or influenced by an individual, due to this scientist have identified risk factors which can be influenced or controlled by an individual and which if not controlled there is a likelihood of causing Alzheimer. They include:. Head injury - There is a risk of getting infected with Alzheimer in the old ages as a result of a head injury that one acquires when he is young.
Therefore this can be prevented by wearing a helmet during sporting activities. The heart- head connection - Research has revealed that the brain health links to heart health; this is because the brain is supplied by a lot of blood from the heart which amounts to twenty to twenty five percent of the blood. Therefore the brain acquires twenty percent of food and oxygen which the blood carries.
Therefore damage of the heart or blood vessels increases the chances of getting Alzheimer or vascular dementia. Such damages may include high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, heart disease and high cholesterol level. Healthy aging - Further study has shown that healthy aging ensures healthy growth of the brain therefore leading to minimal chances of Alzheimer infection. Some of the steps that should be undertaken to ensure healthy aging include: avoid excessive drinking, smoking, ensuring that you don't become obese, exercising regularly and socializing with other people as often as possible.
The clear thing about this disease is that it develops as a result of complex cascade of processes within someone's body. These processes take place over a long period of time within the brain. Neither medication improved cognitive scores in patients with mild-to-moderate disease MMSE 16—26 , leading researchers to conclude that these medications may show benefit only when administered in the early stages of MCI and mild dementia.
However, a new study regarding the effect of this class of medication in patients with few to no symptoms MMSE 20—26 but a positive amyloid PET imaging result also failed to show a significant difference in cognitive outcomes between the study group and asymptomatic controls Studies involving similar drugs in this class are ongoing, with the goal of improving or preserving cognition in patients with MCI due to AD. Currently, another drug is under investigation for its effect on memory and cognitive function in older patients with positive biomarkers or family history of AD, known as the EARLY study.
Since p-tau appears to be the downstream pathology and is likely the direct cause of symptoms in AD, drugs to reduce the burden of this protein are also in development Many different tau vaccines have shown both safety and efficacy in animal models 46 , and, in one recent small study, an anti-tau drug demonstrated a good safety profile and even stimulated a positive immune response in human patients Several other early phase trials of drugs which target the tau protein are currently underway, though results are yet to be published Table 1 outlines the treatments and targets currently under investigation.
Potential treatments currently undergoing clinical investigation. Source: www. Gamma oscillation, a high-frequency brainwave rhythm, is associated with inter-neuronal communication in virtually all brain networks 50 and may help to distinguish between true and false memories This was done by using a non-invasive 40 Hz photic stimulator to entrain the desired frequency in the mouse cortex.
Alzheimer 's Disease And Disease
This method is also currently in early phase trials in humans, utilizing both visual and auditory stimulation. As recently as , the diagnosis and management of AD relied upon clinical symptom reporting that fit the pattern of memory dysfunction and loss of functional independence in multiple cognitive domains. There are now a few widely available diagnostic studies that augment the clinical evaluation for a more accurate diagnosis of AD pathology, including bodily fluids and imaging studies, with good specificity.
However, the treatment options for AD remain supportive and symptomatic without attenuation of the ultimate prognosis. Medications such as cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine improve memory and alertness, respectively, without changing the life expectancy or overall progression of AD dementia. Lifestyle modifications including diet and exercise remain the only interventions with evidence showing lower AD risk and possible prevention of overall cognitive decline, and these interventions are first-line recommendations for all patients regardless of cognitive function.
I. CLINICAL FEATURES
Although limited evidence suggests that earlier identification of AD pathology will lead to better and more-definitive treatment, the results of larger-scale interventions are not yet available for review. Given the rising prevalence and mortality of AD coupled with the growing total healthcare costs, there continues to be a sense of urgency in the medical community to develop effective means for the early diagnosis and successful treatment of this progressive neurodegenerative disease.
F Faculty Reviews are commissioned from members of the prestigious F Faculty and are edited as a service to readers. In order to make these reviews as comprehensive and accessible as possible, the referees provide input before publication and only the final, revised version is published.
Curing Alzheimer’s Disease
The referees who approved the final version are listed with their names and affiliations but without their reports on earlier versions any comments will already have been addressed in the published version. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List FRes v. Version 1. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing interests: Jason Weller has no competing interests to declare. Andrew Budson is a consultant and speaker for General Electric, Lilly, and Axovant and is a clinical trial investigator for Biogen, Lilly, vTv therapeutics, and Axovant.
Accepted Jul This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, dementia, amyloid, tau.
Figure 1. Open in a separate window. Current treatment At present, only two classes of pharmacologic therapy are available for patients with AD. Anti-tau Since p-tau appears to be the downstream pathology and is likely the direct cause of symptoms in AD, drugs to reduce the burden of this protein are also in development Table 1. Summary As recently as , the diagnosis and management of AD relied upon clinical symptom reporting that fit the pattern of memory dysfunction and loss of functional independence in multiple cognitive domains.
Be on the watch not to cross the line and find you taking sides to mention ideas that might form the basis of an argument. Just come up with a statement with facts that will make the audience aware of what they should anticipate in the rest of the body text. Strong declarations come in handy during such instances as they contribute greatly to your conclusion.
The goal is to inform the reader and the writer has done exactly so. Here the writer is targeting to create arguments by raising disputable claims. Create a forum for an argument.
What to know about Alzheimer's disease
Now, if the instructions ask you to come up with an argument then as a writer, you ought to be as persuasive as possible to win your readers. By the end of the paper, the reader should have been convinced that the position you took is the right one. The persuasion statement must have two clauses the dependent and independent clause. The independent clause states your position while the dependent clause supports your position by giving reasons why you opted so. Any opinion you choose to declare must have some backup evidence to support it for purposes of convincing your reader.
Another element to watch out for is relevance, how relevant is your opinion? Such a statement will convince the reader why you settled for such an opinion. By the end of such a paper, you can rest assured that the reader would have accepted your point of view and even agreed to it.
Alzheimers Disease Essay | Bartleby
As long as you arm yourself with enough evidence to tackle some of the questions that might arise. A little bit of moderation can really help you avoid some of the unnecessary mistakes. The order is very important to give you a good flow of ideas and information. By reading your statement, the reader should be in a position to anticipate what is to come in the next of the paper and even develop a predetermined conclusion. Once your statement has captured all this, the rest of the body paragraphs will now just come in to support your claims.
source Avoid non-credible sources as you might end up presenting falsified data and even be disqualified from the paper. While mentioning your pieces of evidence, strive to be as interesting as possible. The independent clause declares your opinion while the dependent clause gives supporting reasons to your claim.
An example can be;.