An approach to teaching for critical thinking in health education

The D esignate, D esign, D eliver and D iscuss steps of 6D-approach, help train students in the above competencies. Self-evaluation and peer-feedback are essential obligations of medical professionals in the improvement and continuance of professional competencies [ 43 , 44 ].

Top 7 Critical Thinking Lesson Plans

In the 6D approach, the D esign step allows the students to reflect on the concepts delivered in the D idactic step. This helps them to self-evaluate their gaps in learning. The D iscuss step allows the students to involve in an elaborate discussion with their peers, during which they receive a detailed feedback with regards to not only the presentation but also on their understanding of the concepts with respect to the topic being addressed through the presentation.

This approach emphasizes on the following aspects:. The 6D approach provides the instructor with opportunities to inculcate novel pedagogical techniques in the curriculum. One of our future aims will be to employ technology enhanced learning TEL through the 6D approach. TEL can be defined as an innovative pedagogical approach, that aims to combine learning design and leverage digital technologies to deliver active and engaging, student centered learning [ 45 ].

Our endeavor will focus on the effectiveness of one specific social media tool Twitter in terms of its application of the 6D approach and impact on groups of undergraduate medical students. It will assess how the medium supports the online group discussion, the efficiency of article dissemination, the selection of articles for the active in-classroom discussions, how group members deal with resistance to participation and over contribution.

Designers of UME need to address the exponentially expanding volume and variability of scientific knowledge, where by didactic teaching methods need to be augmented by innovative student-centric pedagogical strategies. Such pedagogical strategies need to be informed by focused teaching principles, and should integrate information, communication and technology-enabled tools to promote lifelong information gathering, assimilation, integration.

Such journal club integrating pedagogical strategies will encourage retention of knowledge, critical thinking, metacognition, collaboration and leadership skills in addition to self-evaluation and peer feedback. We successfully implemented the 6D-Approach in UME, and the approach was favorably received by the students.

However, our study has specific limitations:. Due to the exploratory nature of this educational approach, we decided to publish and share our approach before we embarked on a larger more formally structured program. We therefore are unable to present a well-designed and executed evaluation of the expected improvements in knowledge retention as well as enhanced non-cognitive skills and competences. The nature of the chosen topic is characterized by mechanistic and structural aspects of medical science.

Open access

Topics that require the development of other skills and competencies such as analytical prowess, emotional intelligence and emphatic aptness could improve by implementing the 6D-Approach. However, we cannot extrapolate the results from our pilot project to courses of a distinctly different nature. The positive feedback received from the course participants are an indication that the implementation of the 6D technique can incite enthusiasm in students.

However, a formal and more robust measurable outcome need to be formulated and analyzed as to provide an overall accepted scientific proof of the expected superior end results. The successful implementations of the 6D approach builds on the technical and practical implementation of the model.

However, like all teaching situations, success depends on the enthusiasm, knowledge and communication skills of the course directors - teachers as well.

The 6D-approach through the use of mentored journal clubs encourages retention of knowledge, critical thinking, metacognition, collaboration and leadership skills in addition to self-evaluation and peer feedback. Given the significance of the above traits in medical education, the approach provides a strategy to those who want to implement and strengthen the above traits in UME. Finally, and importantly, mentored journal clubs employed in the implementation of the approach represent an example of the medical education continuum, in particular highlighting the use of a continuing education method in UME.

Planning and implementing an undergraduate medical curriculum: the lessons learned.

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    3 - Teaching Critical Thinking as if Our Future Depends on It, Because It Does

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