Quite oddly, in spite of all the progress that India has made during the years, the monster of poverty has not been eliminated. A great segment of our society is still living below the poverty line. The most distressing feature of our social system is that we have at present all the more glaring contrasts and disparities in incomes and life styles. And then with the rise in prices of essential commodities, their real incomes are further shrinking.
Nothing is without cause.
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Similarly, there are definite causes for this stark poverty. Illiteracy is one of such causes.
The world has moved fast during the last some years. But the illiterate or semi-literate people F are unable to keep pace with the world.
A Conclusion For Poverty
Hence, they cannot find a job. Hence, they have to lead a marginal life. Many parents, particularly in rural areas and those belonging to lower strata of life are superstitious.
They do not allow their children to I learn new arts and services. They consider some arts such as singing, dancing, painting, etc. Many people are lethargic and they do not want to do anything. Then there is so much corruption at all levels that they dare not take a risk in investing in any venture.
Also cut-throat competition in every field discourages new entrants. The remedy lies in a house to house survey. Seats in services should be reserved for economically weaker persons. Those who want to set up a small scale industry or start a business should be given liberal loans at low interests. Really indigent and helpless persons, particularly the senior citizens, the disabled and the widows should be given pensions and grants and subsidies.
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And until the Great Depression, poverty resulting from business fluctuations was accepted as an inevitable consequence of a natural process of market regulation. Relief was granted to the unemployed to tide them over until the business cycle again entered an upswing. The experiences of the Great Depression inspired a generation of economists such as John Maynard Keynes , who sought solutions to the problems caused by extreme swings in the business cycle.
Since the Great Depression, governments in nearly all advanced industrial societies have adopted economic policies that attempt to limit the ill effects of economic fluctuation. In this sense, governments play an active role in poverty alleviation by increasing spending as a means of stimulating the economy. Part of this spending comes in the form of direct assistance to the unemployed, either through unemployment compensation , welfare, and other subsidies or by employment on public-works projects.
Facts on Poverty in India
Although business depressions affect all segments of society, the impact is most severe on people of the lowest socioeconomic strata because they have fewer marginal resources than those of a higher strata. Both generalized and concentrated collective poverty may be transmitted from generation to generation, parents passing their poverty on to their children.
Collective poverty is relatively general and lasting in parts of Asia, the Middle East , most of Africa, and parts of South America and Central America. Life for the bulk of the population in these regions is at a minimal level. Nutritional deficiencies cause disease seldom seen by doctors in the highly developed countries. Low life expectancy , high levels of infant mortality, and poor health characterize life in these societies.
Collective poverty is usually related to economic underdevelopment. The total resources of many developing nations in Africa, Asia, and South and Central America would be insufficient to support the population adequately even if they were equally divided among all of the citizens. Proposed remedies are twofold: 1 expansion of the gross national product GNP through improved agriculture or industrialization, or both, and 2 population limitation. Thus far, both population control and induced economic development in many countries have proved difficult, controversial, and at times inconclusive or disappointing in their results.
An increase of the GNP does not necessarily lead to an improved standard of living for the population at large, for a number of reasons.laszcounbaygnos.tk
Essay on Poverty in India: Top 6 Essays on Poverty
The most important reason is that, in many developing countries, the population grows even faster than the economy does, with no net reduction in poverty as a result. This increased population growth stems primarily from lowered infant mortality rates made possible by improved sanitary and disease-control measures. Unless such lowered rates eventually result in women bearing fewer children, the result is a sharp acceleration in population growth.
To reduce birth rates, some developing countries have undertaken nationally administered family-planning programs, with varying results. Many developing nations are also characterized by a long-standing system of unequal distribution of wealth —a system likely to continue despite marked increases in the GNP.
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Some authorities have observed the tendency for a large portion of any increase to be siphoned off by persons who are already wealthy, while others claim that increases in GNP will always trickle down to the part of the population living at the subsistence level. In many industrialized, relatively affluent countries, particular demographic groups are vulnerable to long-term poverty.
In city ghettos , in regions bypassed or abandoned by industry, and in areas where agriculture or industry is inefficient and cannot compete profitably, there are found victims of concentrated collective poverty. These people, like those afflicted with generalized poverty, have higher mortality rates, poor health, low educational levels, and so forth when compared with the more affluent segments of society. Their chief economic traits are unemployment and underemployment, unskilled occupations, and job instability. Efforts at amelioration focus on ways to bring the deprived groups into the mainstream of economic life by attracting new industry, promoting small business, introducing improved agricultural methods, and raising the level of skills of the employable members of the society.
Similar to collective poverty in relative permanence but different from it in terms of distribution, case poverty refers to the inability of an individual or family to secure basic needs even in social surroundings of general prosperity. This inability is generally related to the lack of some basic attribute that would permit the individual to maintain himself or herself.
Such persons may, for example, be blind, physically or emotionally disabled , or chronically ill. Physical and mental handicaps are usually regarded sympathetically, as being beyond the control of the people who suffer from them. Efforts to ameliorate poverty due to physical causes focus on education, sheltered employment, and, if needed, economic maintenance. Article Media.