Introduction The following essay aims to discuss and explore six of the well-known individuals covered in detail within the course materials who have contributed heavily to the development of psychodynamic and analytical psychology, including their proposed theories and principles. Freud - Psychoanalysis This theory of psychoanalysis refers to the psychological processes which occur in the unconscious mind and the therapeutic interventions which can be used to access such subconscious thoughts Borch-Jacobsen and Shamdasani, Jung - Analytical Psychology Jung did not agree with the views of Freud and found the focus on sexuality to be limiting and exclusionary of other factors Jung, ; Jung, Adler — Individual Psychology Strongly rejecting the works of Freud and his fixation on stages of sexual development, Adler was more of the opinion that feelings of inferiority and low self-worth were the true origin of psychological disturbances Adler, ; his views today may be deemed somewhat sexist, but in his original works he proposed that masculinity was an indicator of strength and femininity was an indicator of weakness.
Perls — Gestalt Therapy Perls also believed that the works of Freud had many limitations and were largely out-of-date and irrelevant Perls, ; Houston, Berne — Transactional Analysis Berne provides a model for describing life experiences in a rational manner with a positive outlook and its applications in a wide range of therapies are noted; the personality is regarded to have three separate aspects according to this model, the parent ego, the adult ego and the child ego.
Conclusion and Summary In conclusion, this assignment has provided an excellent opportunity to explore the history of psychodynamic and analytical psychology, along with the seminal theories and principles in a structured an academic approach Changing States, Reference List Adler, A. Bryant, M.
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Sign in to write a comment. Read the ebook. Psychology - Consulting, Therapy Hypnotherapy. Theories and their cont A Psycho Philosophie - Philosophie des Anglistik - Literatur Essay on "Disgrace" by J. One good example of this is whilst driving a familiar journey that we may take every day, the subconscious mind takes over the conscious probably dipping into those Alpha waves, sometimes we will reach the destination with absolutely no idea how we arrived but somehow have arrived there safely. The aspects of hypnosis I have already explained all happen psychologically within the brain, when we look at stage hypnosis we see popular misconceptions we have been led to believe, everything is visual we see actual evidence of hypnosis, or we are made to believe that we are seeing real hypnosis this is all the showmanship of the hypnotist, of course the people who are hypnotised could well be but usually this is done back stage to save time and sometimes the people have been pre chosen to perform.
Catalepsy is a phenomena of hypnosis that we may see evidence of on stage in the form of the human plank trick when the hypnotised person remains rigid as another person stands on them as they are suspended by using two chairs at either end of the body. It can also be used as a test to check if a client is hypnotised during a hypnotherapy session, the hypnotist will suggest to them they are unable to move a part of the body and indeed they cannot.
Other physical aspects of hypnosis occur naturally in everyday life sometimes when we rest or sleep. Eyelids may flutter as they start to relax into hypnosis the client may or may not notice this but like all the other aspects this is completely normal. They may also have rapid eye movements similar to the ones we have in REM sleep. Physical relaxation is another indication the client is hypnotised, their muscles will relax the jaw may relax and drop open slightly, they may even slobber a little bit, the pulse rate changes as the person starts to relax deeper and also as the breathing becomes slower and more rhythmic.
Usually when going through a relaxation technique the hypnotist will ask the person to concentrate on their breathing resulting in it becoming slow and deep. Subjects of hypnosis also experience changes to the senses, hyperaesthesia occurs when the senses become super-acute even tiny changes in temperature have been noticed by people who have been hypnotised, we could experience a change in our senses if we were to be blindfolded our other senses would change to allow for the lack of vision but when using hypnosis the change would be rapid.
As well as hyperaesthesia it is possible to experience hypnotic anaesthesia or analgesia which is pain relief on different levels. Analgesia is the term used to describe localised pain relief due to loss of sensation in that specific area, to anaesthetise a person the hypnotherapist would use suggestion under hypnosis to lose the sensation in that particular area, in stage hypnotism we would see the like of this for the person to be pricked on the finger and not feel the pain or in a medical situation the person could actually be operated on in a specific part of the body that has been anaesthetised by hypnosis.
There are other phenomena like this such as time distortion, a client who has had an hour long hypnotherapy session could re-orientate feeling like only 10 minutes has passed. To be able to achieve these things and to be treated using hypnotherapy there must be an element of trust between the hypnotherapist and the client, as it is important the client is able to relax in the environment with their hypnotherapist.
The therapist encouraged him to stretch, and drink some water in order to help him re-orientate Waxman, An information sheet on self hypnosis was given to G on leaving to reinforce the suggestions which had been given in trance. When G came for his fourth session he reported that as soon as the therapist began to speak, he had relaxed. G reported that he had done self hypnosis most days in the last week and found if he did it last thing at night it would help him go to sleep. Studies have shown a link between weight gain and reduced sleep.
A lack of sleep reduces Leptin and raises levels of Ghrelin which both can lead to increased appetite Taheri, The therapist advised him to reduce his caffeine intake, especially throughout the late afternoon and evening and to have a set routine prior to retiring. Incorporated into the therapy session were relaxation phrases to help with his stresses and post hypnotic suggestions for what G could do if he did wake unnecessarily Waxman, Anchoring in positive feelings was discussed prior to trance, G had no past anchors present and had experienced confident, calm feelings previously. It was agreed that the middle finger on his right hand would be his anchor.
The induction of choice for this final session was simple eye closure. G appeared very relaxed and comfortable as soon as he closed his eyes. The minds eye deepener followed, in the hope that G could utilise this in self-hypnosis, especially if he felt he was over analysing things, more so on a night whilst sleeping. On this session the therapist used the garden script, in order to confirm stabilisation and allow him to go on an unconscious search to clear up any issues which may still be present.
An anchor was set, so if G felt stressed or tired, or at anytime which he associated with negative feelings, then his confidence and self esteem could be utilised in any situation, thus empowering him Burrows et al, Also integrated into every session was pseudo-orientation of time in which G was encouraged to picture himself in the coming days, weeks and months, becoming healthier and fitter and choosing to eat the correct food and drink.
All of his modalities were applied in order to facilitate a more appropriate automatic behaviour following the therapy Waxman, On awakening G tested his anchor and was advised to practice it in self hypnosis and use it regularly in order to strengthen it. The sessions were concluded by discussing maintenance appointments and for G to contact at his discretion. In the treatment of obesity relapse is the most common problem, therefore it is paramount to support the client Burrows et al, Due to the individual characteristics of subjects with eating disorders, the nature of hypnotherapy and the ability to replicate clinical implementation, the efficacy of this intervention can be mixed Ryden et al, In a study examining changes in traits of subjects personalities following weight loss, it was found that others anxiety, muscular tension, irritability and psychathenia were all changed, however impulsivity was unaffected Ryden et al, On reflection the therapist could have included post hypnotic suggestions aimed at addressing impulsivity and reduce the risk of relapse.
You are feeling very relaxed…
Reassurance would have been given aiming to take G under the reaction Waxman, The London College of Clinical Hypnosis advise a treatment plan that focuses on stabilising the client, initiating behaviour change and then maintaining behaviours. The primary approach used to achieve this is direct suggestions and ego strengthening. This line of therapy was used in the treatment for G weight control and was successful.
If behavioural techniques would not have been successful, then working pluralistically, a hypno-analytical approach may have been deemed more suitable such as parts therapy, dissociation regression or desensitisation. In parts therapy the client and or therapist could speak to the part, thank it for its role and gain agreement for change.
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One or two stage dissociation may be used, allowing the unconscious mind to identify the reason for resisting healthy living. An example of a regression technique would be for the client to go back to the time prior to them having their weight issue and deal with it from that time. The advantage of the client having a conditioned response could be used possibly to desensitise them from particular food triggers Chapman, The therapist should be aware that there may be secondary or tertiary gains that may be preventing the weight loss.
Evans advises specific questioning prior to hypnosis to identify these. As in any case when treating a client care should always be exercised and if the therapist feels they are not able to give the client the best possible treatment then they should be referred elsewhere. Adam, T. Physiology and Behaviour. Barabasz, M. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis.
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