However, when it comes to writing, how do we break down these crucial skills into manageable tasks for struggling writers? We all know that one effective strategy is to break down a task into smaller, more manageable tasks. The question becomes HOW to teach these skills.
Research has shown that focusing on the discrete skills and aspects of the writing process produces higher student achievement and success rates than writing taught with a holistic focus on product. Campbell, , p. The information from staff inventory identifies the members of staff who need to be developed professionally. It also identifies the members of staff who may serve as mentors to other staff members. Additionally, if the co-teaching model has just been introduced in a school, then a staff inventory helps to identify the members of staff who are willing to teach.
When a needs assessment and staff inventory are conducted, they highlight what is going on in the school during the present time. This information helps in directing future actions. The leadership of inclusive practices should address the overall implementation of inclusive practices throughout the school. Individuals who are within the school make up this team, and they function as leaders. This team does not need to be made up of new people, a leadership team that exists can take on the function of an inclusive practices leadership team.
It is the responsibility of this team to identify a set of principles which will be used to govern a school-wide focus Campbell, , p. Monthly meetings should be convened by the leadership team to review data implementation and revise data implementation as needed. This team is mainly tasked with fostering the implementation of inclusive school-wide practices.
The leadership team also has the responsibility of establishing policy in regards to inclusive practices and identification, actions that should be taken by the entire staff to ensure that policy implementation is effective Ainscow, , p. The leadership team creates an action plan which addresses the long-term and short-term goals. It is the work of the leadership team to identify activities which are reasonably initiated within a specified period.
An attempt to implement too much in a short time mostly leads to failure. The action plan identifies possible challenges and how they will be tackled. Every goal of the action plan should be addressed through specific actions. A plan which has concrete and specific goals is more easily implemented by the staff Campbell, , p. After the development of the plan it should be presented to the entire staff, the plan should be open for criticism although changes should only be made if the suggestions presented do not jeopardize the effective implementation of the plan Ainscow, , p.
Additionally, the plan should be reviewed continually.
Revisions should be made as the activities are conducted and goals achieved. The leadership should help in updating the plan regularly. If the plan is reasonable and can be easily implemented, then it is easier for the goals to be achieved.
Examples of Five-Paragraph Essay Conclusions
This entails implementation of the action plan. For the plan to be effectively implemented certain decisions have to be made regarding some parameters and logistical areas which are related to inclusive practices. These include issues such as identification of student support needs, incorporating SWD into general education, lesson and time planning Ainscow, , p. If these are not addressed adequately focusing on procedures for each, then it will be impossible to effectively implement the plan. Just as is common with any educational practice, meaningful professional development is critical because it ensures that all members of staff have the required knowledge and skills for effective implementation Cook, , p.
Additionally, it is important to create an environment where all staff members are supported in their efforts in implementing inclusive practices. It is important that staff members receive professional development on the models of inclusive practices if they are to be implemented effectively. Furthermore, engaging the family ensures that inclusive practices are supported and better promoted. Implementation measures should also be set. Identifying what indicates effective practices provides staff with an explicit excellence model which serves as a monitoring tool to gauge how successful implementation is.
Additionally, the process needs to be monitored to ensure that inclusive practices are effectively implemented Ainscow, , p. An effective plan needs to be revised as needs change. Celebrating success is an essential part of an effective implementation of inclusive practices. Creating learning outcomes gives a tutor a tool to use in tailoring the assessment of the students and also measuring the aptitude against the main purpose of the course. Teaching requires assessment this means an evaluation of student understanding considering the goals of a lesson.
There are several types of assessment which involve student work Ainscow, , p. An assessment can take a few minutes, or at times it can take weeks. An assessment can ask students to demonstrate how they understand issues or how they have acquired skills through writing. Additionally, an assessment may seek the ability of a student to create a product or presentation.
Writing Instruction for Special Needs Students - Empowering Writers
An assessment can also ask students to demonstrate how much they understand individually or as a group. A successful student learning outcome expresses how much a student should know and what they should be able to achieve after they complete their course Campbell, , p. Assessment the student learning outcome may provide information which makes it possible to put the learning of students in front of all academic planning processes. An assessment program should show and be determined by the learning goals which a lesson brings forward. However, linking goals to assessment are at times difficult.
If the goals set are for the student to learn a concept, does it mean that they should understand facts or summarize information? A tutor should know if the assessment is related to the goals of the lesson Frederickson, , p. An assessment is a multi-step process where a teacher formulates clear learning goals for all students. A successful assessment should also articulate the learning goals of the students.
Furthermore, a successful assessment can describe what the students should be able to do if they have met their learning goals Cook, , p. An assessment should develop a scoring rubric. An assessment should be able to reflect why students were not able to master the learning goals. It should be able to develop strategies which assist in future success. Furthermore, an assessment can be able to help a student in understanding certain topics; students are also able to think about their learning through assessments Ainscow, , p. Assessments can help students to know what they have been able to learn in class or previously in other courses.
An effective learning outcome should be created in line with the goals, objectives, and divisions of the school. An Effective learning outcome focuses on learning which results from an activity and not from the activity itself. Additionally, an effective learning system should be student-centered.
The success of a learning outcome can only be determined by demonstration of how much the children have learned. For example, I would have my students research historical figures by filling out a graphic organizer that had labels like birthdate, childhood, major accomplishments, etc.
Some students may only need a sentence starter at the beginning of each paragraph and can write the rest independently. Sentence starters and frames are also great for encouraging discussions. You can have them posted in the room and require students to use them when answering questions or pass out a list of them to discussion groups. With so many states adopting common core standards, sentence starters and frames that require students to use evidence are very helpful.
Discussion sentence frames can be posted and reviewed occasionally and provide help to your special education students all year long.
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Summarizing: This is an activity that will help all of your students, but especially your struggling learners. When reading novels, I would have my students write a one-sentence summary after each chapter. They can also write one sentence summaries at the end of class about what they learned that day. In each case, it requires them to immediately review the information they have learned and give themselves a nugget of information to anchor their learning.
After discussions, I would randomly call on students to give me a one-sentence summary of what their partner had said. You will be shocked at how many struggle to answer the first time you do this, but then they learn to really listen to each other.
The beauty of this activity is that nothing extra has to be planned ahead of time and it only requires a few extra minutes to your lesson. You can combine one-sentence written summaries with sentence starters for students who need it. Color-coding: This is especially helpful for your visual learners. Color-coding can be used in everything.
Write out the steps of a math problems and use a different marker for each step. Use a green highlighter to highlight vocabulary words and a pink highlighter for math formulas. Use a blue highlighter when taking notes about a person and a yellow highlighter for an event.
Special Ed: Writing Five-Paragraph Essay Conclusions with Struggling Writers
Use a different color for each character when taking notes about a novel. If students use their notes to complete assignments or take tests, they will be able to find their information much more quickly. Learning goals: This is one of the easiest to implement. After passing out as assignment, if you notice your special education students are struggling or taking longer than usual, you can shorten the work they need to complete.
You could cross out more challenging questions. Of course, you need to make sure this is in-line with grading policy or their Individualized Education Plan IEP and that you are still getting a good sample of their work. In some curriculums, particularly in math, students are required to solve twenty of the same types of problems for practice.