Contoured muscles have replaced incised lines, and the overall girth of the thighs and torso bring us even closer to a naturalistic human figure. The Kritios Boy reflects the next step in this evolution during the transition to the Early Classical Period, commenced with the victory of the Greeks over Persian invaders and considered, along with the High Classical Period, the peak years of ancient Greek civilization.
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What is most striking about this figure, however, is the effort to capture the naturalistic stance of contrapposto, wherein the shoulders shift opposite to the pelvis, allowing the figural weight to rest on one leg while the other bends slightly. Though these two figures were completed within a decade of each other, they reveal this essential transition. The Western Pediment Dying Warrior maintains the same characteristics of his Archaic predecessors archaic smile, mannequin-like appearance while revealing the limitations of this approach to sculptural representation.
This figure is intended to be in the throes of death as he grips at the arrow that has pierced his chest; however, his expressionless face and rigid smile do not connote such agony. He balances on one hip while jauntily crossing his leg, a position difficult for anyone to assume, let alone a dying soldier. His Eastern Pediment Warrior counterpart, however, reveals a greater sense of naturalism not only in pose but also in expression. The Greek sculptor Polykleitos was known for his perfection of the contrapposto stance in conjunction with his writing of the Canon, one of the most influential known ancient treatises on art.
In this text, Polykleitos advocates for sculptural symmetria, which basically means that all parts of the sculpture should be designed in perfect proportion to each other. This shift came in part due to the changing political atmosphere in Greece, where the relative calm of the preceding century had been replaced in the fourth century by upheaval and uncertainty. Most notable in this shift was the installation of Alexander the Great, whose father had gained control of Greek territories around BCE yet met with death only two years later.
In Hermes and the Infant Dionysos we see the figure of Hermes adopting a softened contrapposto stance as he cradles the infant Dionysos in the crook of his arm. In sum, the interaction seen here seems not the exchange between two gods but rather that between a caregiver and child, stressing the human qualities of these previously idealized deities.
The death of Alexander the Great in BCE resulted in the division of his expansive empire among his top generals and signaled another artistic revolution as artists explored more novel means of expression. Building on the humanist qualities of Late Classical art, Hellenistic art emphasized emotion, drama, and theatricality.
This was particularly apparent in those works reserved for military monuments, such as the Gallic Chieftain Killing Himself and His Wife. Originally part of a sculptural group erected on the acropolis of the kingdom of Pergamon, near present-day Bergama, Turkey, this dramatic grouping was intended to reinforce Pergamene victory over the Gauls while also expressing reverence for their nobility in defeat. Here the Gallic chieftain stands poised to drive his sword into his own chest, the tip of his blade already piercing his skin and causing rivulets of blood below.
He is depicted just after having killed his wife, whose body hangs limp next to him. While Gallic Chieftain Killing Himself and His Wife conveys this strong sense of drama and theatricality, other sculptures from the Hellenistic Period offer greater subtlety of emotion.
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Applying to uni? Started uni this year? Go to first unread. Skip to page:. Gobble11 Badges: 0. Report Thread starter 7 years ago 1. Not what you're looking for? LizAnn Badges: 0. Report 7 years ago 2. Same here, the sheer amount of things we have to know is a little worrying. D: I've found that for learning the basics about the art- so names, dates, painters, etc- cue cards are really good. Also, for the temples I've found it helpful to draw out the ground plans from memory so I can recognise them if they appear. As for the more detailed stuff like analysis: I make sure I have a basic 'run through' system for the commentary questions.
So for things like sculptures I just analyse it from head to toe, if that makes sense. The section I'm finding really hard to revise for is Sanctuaries- really hope it either doesn't appear, or I can do the other question! And then just the usual stuff like making sure to compare artwork if applicable to the question , putting in dates and periods for AO1 marks and so on. MyselfEtAl Badges: 0. Report 7 years ago 3. Original post by LizAnn Heya.
Spoiler: Show. Any notes on the Propylia would be much appreciated! Report Thread starter 7 years ago 4. Woodford helps a lot! I'm worried about the sanctuaries too, is it me or is there not that much to write about them? Especially if they come up on the 50 marker hopefully the second option will be a better alternative! Pretty sure we don't need to memorise dates either, as they took it out of the specification, so don't bother with that.
You just need to be able to put them in the correct period I think. Report Thread starter 7 years ago 5. Report 7 years ago 6. Original post by Gobble11 yes that book is great!!
I think that's why i struggle with the architecture side of the course. It probably helps but i doubt they would mark you down for it if you didn't put it in? I think by artistic language they mean things like 'motion lines' and 'foreshortening' and other terms like that do any of you know if you have to compare different pieces of art in the exam? Report 7 years ago 7. Original post by Gobble11 thank you both for the help by the way!! Report 7 years ago 8. I'm freaking out too, I find flash cards help a lot with memorising places and artists. Does anyone have any idea what topic may come up or any possible questions?
I'm holding out for an architectural sculpture question myself so fingers crossed! Report 7 years ago 9. Original post by spease I'm freaking out too, I find flash cards help a lot with memorising places and artists. Report 7 years ago God, panic is setting in with art and architecture I'm steering clear of temples and sanctuaries personally! Any other good revision tips, i've made cards Original post by woodyfry God, panic is setting in with art and architecture Report Thread starter 7 years ago Original post by MyselfEtAl Also, what's everyone else doing for the other module?
I'm doing Virgil and the Iliad. Original post by spease Does anyone have any idea what topic may come up or any possible questions? Original post by Gobble11 I'm doing that too! The Parthenon was built entirely of marble. It was decorated with magnificent sculptures portraying various battles, a procession of Athenians honoring the Greek goddess Athena, and scenes from Athena's life. Although now a ruin, the Parthenon still stands today, dominating Athens' Acropolis the highest point of the city.
The Erechtheum was built on the Acropolis about 20 years after the Parthenon. It has the slim proportions and decorative details typical of the Ionic order. Unlike most other temples, the Erechtheum has porches extending from both sides. One of the porches is the famous Porch of the Maidens. It has columns in the shapes of female figures.
Another notable Doric temple is the temple of Apollo at Bassae.
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Built between and B. After the 's B. But they tended to add ornamentation and experiment further with combining the orders in a single building. Among the other architectural forms created by the Greeks during this period were the stoa and the theater. The stoa was a long roofed hall or promenade that had a solid back wall and a colonnade at the front. The structure was used as a shopping center, a law court, or simply a shelter from the weather. Stoas were also used to enclose spaces, such as markets.
Theaters were an important part of every Greek city. They were usually situated against a hill where the audience could sit to watch the performances. Performances were dedicated to Dionysus, the god of wine. Sculpture Few original sculptures of the classical period survive. Much of what is known about the great sculptors of this age comes from copies made by the Romans. The Romans also recorded the names of many Greek artists in their writings. The growing interest in realism, as well as in the idealization of the human body, can be seen in a famous early classical sculpture called the Discus-Thrower.
It was carved about B. But it is known today only from a Roman copy. The athlete is caught in mid-movement, at the instant he is about to hurl the discus. Another famous example is the Charioteer about B. This life-size bronze statue was discovered at the great sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi. Bronze was a favorite material from which to make statues in the early 's B. However, very few large bronze statues have survived because they were melted down long ago to make useful objects, such as spearheads.
Classical sculpture peaked after the middle of the 's. Two of the greatest sculptors of this period were Phidias and Polyclitus. Phidias was known for his sculptures of the gods. He was in charge of the sculptures created for the Parthenon. Two colossal gold-and-ivory statues of Zeus and Athena were his masterpieces. Both are now known only from descriptions.
Polyclitus specialized in statues of athletes. His works, such as the Spearbearer, firmly established the ideal measurements and proportions of the body. The pose of this figure, with one leg drawn back and the weight of the body shifted onto the other leg, continued to be used throughout the history of art. Relief sculpture--sculpture carved to stand out from a flat background--often decorated temples. The long horizontal bands called friezes that ran above Ionic columns often featured relief sculptures of human and animal figures.
An example is the frieze that runs along the outer top of the Parthenon's cella. Between and , the influence of Athens on Greek art declined. A variety of differing styles emerged. The great sculptor Praxiteles introduced a soft, subtle style. In his Hermes and the Infant Dionysus about B. In contrast, another sculptor, Scopas, conveyed strong emotions by his use of twisting, active poses.
A third sculptor, Lysippus, introduced a new system of proportions for the human form. He made the head smaller and the limbs longer.
Lysippus was the court sculptor for Alexander the Great. Painting Except for vase painting, very little painting has survived from the classical period. Literary works of the time note the names of individual painters as well as their use of realism, color, shading, and perspective. Perspective is the technique of showing the illusion of distance on the flat surface of a painting.
The work of a vase painter of the mid's B. The Niobid Painter did not arrange his figures in a row, as was common in red-figure vase painting. Instead, he arranged them on different levels and in different sizes to show perspective.
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During this period, red-figure painting became more ornate as more color and even gilding coating with gold was used. By about B.
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Simpler non-figured designs took its place. Mosaics As early as the 's B. Mosaics are pictures formed by laying small colored stones, pieces of marble, or glass in cement.