Research papers on emotional intelligence

The present study focuses on the relevance of EI as a higher mental ability in medical students. Today all over the. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Dr. Some doctors by virtue of individuality have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions of patients and emotion-relevant stimuli coming from them and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behaviour in case of a medical setting.

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Probably this set of abilities, which remain central to the concept of emotional intelligence puts a doctor at a higher ground with respect to the ease with which he manages his patients and the confidence which he instils in them. But since the introduction of the concept of EI, never an attempt has been made to measure the EI of undergraduate medical students.

There is paucity of Indian literature on the subject of EI and presently there is no scale available to measure the EI of medical undergraduates in the Indian scenario. This test provides 4 scores as it is based on their revised model of EI, which includes four 'branches' or abilities that are hierarchically arranged: emotional identification or perception, use of emotions to facilitate thinking, understanding emotions and managing emotions.

Scores on the MSCEIT are interpreted such that high scores represent the degree to which participants answers mirror scores that are reflective of the group or expert consensus. Other El frameworks conceptualize and measure this construct as a combination of mental abilities and personality traits.

Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman ► Animated Book Summary

For instance, Bar-On [7] conceptualizes EI as comprising multiple dispositions relevant to emotional functioning, such as optimism and empathy. His index, the Emotional Quotient Inventory EQ-i is designed to assess these dispositions using self-report methods. ECI Emotional Competence Inventory defines emotional intelligence as "the capacity for recognizing our own feelings, and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationships'" [8]. The ECI measures four aspects of emotional intelligence, firstly self-awareness, secondly self-management, thirdly social-awareness and lastly social-skills.

The EI is not only essential to overall life satisfaction but also for academic success. It is worth mentioning here that training aspect of emotional intelligence students is also highlighted by Goleman. Training in EI reduces negative emotions, violent behavior and substance abuse [10], which further influences academic achievement and success [11]. This idea of training students resonates with the Aristotelian ideology that "emotions are central to the emotional experience" thus they emotions are "imbued with reason and penetrable to systematic cultivation and coaching" [12]. The impact of training was noted in emotional regulation and increase in grade point average beyond the "contribution made by cognition related abilities" [13].

Understanding of Personality plays an important role. Though there are studies available regarding emotional intelligence, however studies pertaining to personality parameter academic interest and EI are sparse. In view of the above present study was planned. The study aimed at assessment of Emotional Intelligence and its relationship with academic performance. Personality parameters were also assessed.

Sample for the study comprised of undergraduate medical students, however only 97 gave consent for EIS. For the purpose of EIS and personality parameters, academic ranks of these 97 students were taken in consideration for data analysis. Those who did not give consent and students in irregular batches were excluded from the study. Data collection Tools: Emotional Intelligence Scale EIS [14] developed for assessing emotional intelligence of medical undergraduates was administered.

The scale has 30 items measuring four domains of emotional intelligence with scores ranging from 27 to Lower the score higher the emotional intelligence. Four domains attempted to assess were self-awareness, social-awareness, self-management and social-skills. NEO Personality Inventory [15] was administered and academic performance was correlated with emotional intelligence. The investigators personally administered tools and personal data. In order to evaluate emotional intelligence and academic performance, Spearman's correlation method was computed between academic ranks and emotional intelligence ranks.

Majority of the students hailed from an urban background. Interpretation yielded as higher the score poorer the EI.

A Study of Emotional Intelligence Among Postgraduate Medical Students in Delhi

Mean score of Extraversion and Openness to experience falls in high Agreeableness and Conscientiousness falls in the average category. Table 9 shows relationship between EI ranks and academic ranks. There is a relationship between EI scores and academic performance. Correlation coefficients are mentioned in table. Higher EI correlates with higher academic performance. The theoretical assumption of emotional intelligence being implied in academic performance is popularized by Goleman's EI theory, which highlights that one's learning and overall life success is determined by emotional regulation, especially through self-awareness, social-awareness, self-management and relationship management [16].

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Hence assessment of emotional intelligence among medical students acquires relevance. It is interesting to observe that the nurturance of these facets is also possible, as training component of emotional intelligence was also deliberated by researchers and they emphasized if trained in early years of life, this will affect academic achievement positively on a long term basis [17]. Authors found higher the self-concept and self-schema, the more positive are self-descriptions, the better the academic achievement at 18 years of life.

Further studies highlighted role of social interaction in improving self-identity, which has positive impact on achievement [18]. In the present study sample comprised of 97 medical students of first year MBBS course. Assessment of emotional intelligence on a tool meant for medical students, quantified only When the ranks based on these EI scores were correlated with academic ranks of university performance it showed Table 9 positive correlation with correlation coefficient of 0.


These findings are in accordance with the literature available. One study examined the impact of emotional intelligence EI on the successful transition to university. The short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory EQ-i was completed by 1, first-year students attending four different universities within the first week of classes.

Results revealed that academically successful students had significantly higher levels of several different emotional and social competencies [19]. Another study was carried out on undergraduate students of a 5-year dental degree course.


A questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the EI scores of the subjects. In each year of study, subjects were divided into low and high EI groups at the median score. Coping also differed as per emotional intelligence. High EI students were more likely to adopt reflection and appraisal, social and interpersonal, organisation and time-management skills. Low EI students were more likely to engage in health-damaging behaviours [20].

Various methods have been used to assess emotional intelligence, however scale designed to assess emotional intelligence in medical undergraduates was not available. Hence present study is relevant from that perspective. When personality was evaluated it was found that mean score of extraversion and openness to experience falls in high category and mean score of agreeableness and conscientiousness falls in the average category Table 3.

Emotional intelligence, management of subordinate’s emotions, and leadership effectiveness

It suggests that extraversion, openness to experience and neuroticism are in high category in the study group. Further it revealed high neuroticism and high EIS in 11 students like wise high extraversion and high EIS was noted in 24 students. Openness to experience had high EIS corresponding in 26 students. Total EIS score on agreeableness yields 11 out of 32 students falling in high. EIS and high agreeableness. In conscientiousness category out of 26 students scoring high, 11 had high EIS score.

Authors evaluated postgraduate students and assessed them randomly after obtaining informed consent, through semi-structured proforma and various scales, including Emotional Quotient Self-Assessment Checklist. Good control of emotions in self was associated with good relationship with superiors and colleagues [21]. Personality as a correlate has always played an important role. The ability measure was not correlated with personality, but the trait measure was correlated with personality [22].

However definite conclusions may not be possible with current findings. Present study found positive correlation of emotional intelligence with academic performance in undergraduate medical students. Those in this group, usually intentionally choose an action that they know will bring harm to them. This behavior is done when a person literally and knowingly makes a tradeoff in a situation.

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It is when a person chooses a certain option that has some benefit but also has the potential to cause harm to the person as well. A good example of this would be when a person chooses to take up smoking. In the tradeoff, people will deliberately choose to do something that they know will harm them, so that if they fail later they are able to blame their failure on the bad choice they previously made. In this instance a person is pursuing a desirable outcome but chooses a strategy or approach that backfires and produces the opposite of the desired result.

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Free emotional intelligence Essays and Papers

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