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Received completed work prior the deadline to go through it; only some minor revisions were needed. It was printed in Philadelphia. Styles in all things change, and for reasons that are unclear to me, the habit of double-spacing faded away. As late as , the practice of using double spaces to separate sentences was still alive in the U. Within the following few years, the practice became all but extinct in commercial publishing on American shores. The English seem to have been the last to join the crowd, with the use of big inter-sentence spaces there continuing at least into the mids.
The Typewriter Connection On a typewriter, using two word spaces after a period makes sense and is, in fact, typographically the right thing to do. This allows the typewriter to have a simple mechanism for advancing the page as you type, with the carriage or the typing mechanism moving a fixed amount after each keystroke, regardless of which character is set: Capitals, lowercase characters, punctuation marks, spaces, everything gets the same escapement which is the word for that machine movement.
Characters in monospaced typefaces look weird, forced by mechanical necessity onto a Procrustean bed. Some — like the M — look pinched, while some are grossly expanded — such as the i or l.
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Side bearings for narrow characters such as punctuation marks have to be puffed up. The overall effect of such type is very airy and open and its spacing is poorly modulated. The mechanism for moving the carriage of a typewriter obliged every character to take up the same amount of space on the line, as shown in these monospaced faces. From top to bottom are Courier, Letter Gothic, and Prestige. So for the same reason that double-spacing typewritten lines is the norm, using two word spaces after periods is, too. In addition, a single word space simply lacks the visual impact to cue the reader that a sentence has ended.
When using proportional typefaces everything is different. Each character can be designed with its familiar historical proportions and has its own unique width. The texture and color of each line of type is much more even. In fact, good type color and balanced spacing argue against it. The problem with doing so these days is that it looks like a mistake.
Interestingly, by the s, electronic phototypesetting systems went as far as ignoring consecutive word spaces altogether when they appeared in text. If the system found consecutive word spaces, it regarded that as a mistake and collapsed them into a single space. For the generation of typesetters who grew up during this regime, this no-nonsense interdiction may be part of the source of the notion that double spaces are not just a bad idea but are in fact verboten. The Cocktail-Party Summary Here are the salient points to remember, which you can wheel out against the next type pedant you find yourself stuck beside at a design conference.
It was an existing practice that found practical application there.
It will be perceived as a mistake. James Felici has worked in the publishing industry—in both editorial and production—for more than 30 years. I was apprenticed as a compositor in London in By the time I finished my apprenticeship close setting was the fashion. Thank you James for this insightful article. The moves in sacatic sp? I also find it interesting that The Chicago Manual for Style the Bible for typewriter students for years has changed its antiquated typewriter doctrine to typographical.
But armed with all this typographic wisdom there are those typewriter gurus who state emphatically that us typographers are totally wrong and 2 spaces is RULE.
Should an Application Essay Be Single-Spaced or Double-Spaced?
Very tedious esp applying all the side bearings optically! I also designed fonts at Zipatone cutting rubylith masters. Adobe offered it for a while in early 90s then 86d it.
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James Felici—and CreativePro—have done a great service in this examination of one or two spaces after a period. It deserves all the attention it can get in our world.
The column sent me to my 14th Edition Chicago Manual of Style. Though familiar with that valuable book and after lots of looking in the index and such, I could find nothing there about the one or two spaces question. The sections on manuscript style seem also silent or, better, opaque. Many years in journalism lead me to think that a single space was preferable for the same reason some other rules exist in news style, to save space in the usually short lines of newspaper columns.
The Associated Press and United Press International books of style were the usual authority in most publications. The Chicago Manual of Style—as I have been assured—is the most used reference in printing houses that offer everything from flyers to academic books and all in between. Felici departs from that in only one style issue I could find.
- The Washington Post
Chicago says there are no spaces before and after a one-em dash—or two hyphens to indicate that mark—for a parenthetical element. Seeing such a wealth of research, beautifully illustrated, must have made many CreativePro readers very happy today. A good way to start our new week and many thanks for that! What a great post, Thanks. Odd that this should come up at this time. I used to have a script in Quark, and before that Aldus Pagemaker that automatically stripped out double spaces. I had forgotten about the issue until this week.
I am guiding two different organizations in development of their blog sites and in fact was stripping double spaces from some posts when this newsletter arrived. Many years ago, I had lost my cushy job as a designer and was trying to make a go at freelance work. A friend got me an in with a major not-for-profit organization that needed an emergency rework. I staid up all night and long into the next day working on the piece. Apparently I was tired and not my most gracious and tactful self when I educated her on proper typesetting. As I recall, I was sharing valuable information about how to make professional looking presentation.
Something that any secretary that had to get type ready for a publication would want to know. This was not how it was perceived. I offered to waive my fee in an effort to make amends and gain future work. The examples you show of early typesetting are all justified alignment. To save time they used the sentence breaks to justify many of the lines vs.
Inter word or inter letter spacing to create justified text happens automatically today with fine controls available to adjust the final result. Two spaces does make sense with monospace fonts just as it did with the typewriter. With most modern fonts a period, a space and a sentence cap are more than enough visual delineation between sentences. As we no longer generally use typewriters or even monospaced fonts routinely, they should teach keyboard skills sans the extra unneeded space. You mention double spacing or em spacing, but you fail to mention using en spacing at the end of a sentence.
ustanovka-kondicionera-deshevo.ru/libraries/2020-10-14/2193.php Some feel that an en gives the visual pause without the large space gap of an em or a double space. You just spread madness and nonsense over three pages instead of two. Actually, proper formatting techniques, like those that should be used on any paper for a class, require that the entire document should be double spaced.
For law school, page limits morphed into word limits. BUT, I always write my briefs single spaced until the very end—when I switch it all to double spaced. That last step means my paper is complete. Awesome :. I just finished my final for my summer class. It was 16 pages single spaced. You just doubled the size of your essay in about three seconds. Like this: Like Loading This is possibly one of the best feelings a college student can experience. I finished my essay.. Keg stand at my place in 10 minutes! Who can actually read wingdings. Hahaha, that is awesome. I always try to delay this moment as long as possible, so that it gets even more awesome :D.
But still, awesome! Pingback: Awesome Things - Evan's Blog. Pingback: Awesome Things Done this once or twice, or three times…or 10,….